• A.


    The obligation of the Administration's employees not to intervene in a procedure when there are circumstances that puts their impartiality at risk.


     State of mind demonstrated in some way.

    Service activity

    Any economic activity on a self-employed basis, normally provided in exchange for remuneration. 

    Administrative action

    Decision issued by administrative authorities in the fulfilment of their duties, and subject to administrative law.

    Restrictive decisions

     Decisions which restrict freedom, imposing an obligation, or a new financial liability, or depriving the citizen of a right or faculty. Examples: expropriations, confiscations, sanctions.

    Procedural act

     Administrative act that does not decide the essence of the matter or lead to the conclusion of the procedure, but is in preparation for the final decision.

    Explicit act

    Expression of the Administration's wishes notified to the interested party.

    Favourable decision

    A decision which extends citizens' legal rights by granting a right or a faculty, or freeing them from a liability. Examples: admission, concession, authorisations, etc.

    Final decision

    An administrative decision that, by its nature, according to the provisions of the law, or because of time elapsed, is not subject to appeal.

    Void decision

    Also known as fully null and void. This is the act that can never be completed or become effective. Article 47 of Act 39/2015 establishes the causes of nullity.

    Presumed decision

    This refers to the situation arising when the Administration does not issue a decision. See the explanation dealing with constructive approval and constructive refusal.

    Automated administrative procedure

    Administrative activity carried out via a properly programmed information system without the need for personal intervention to deal with each individual case. This includes the issue of records of procedures and resolutions regarding them, as well as simple notifications.

    Public administration

    Organisation created to manage services and apply laws in a certain political sphere,independently of the legislative and judicial authorities. The Public Administration serves the general interest with objectivity and acts in accordance with the principles of efficiency, hierarchy, decentralisation, dispersal and coordination, in full subordination to the Law (Article 103 of the Spanish Constitution).


    Written communication in which the interested party voluntarily explains the reasons on which his/her request or defence is based. This is one of the rights of the citizen in dealings with Public Administrations.

    Extension of time limits

    This is the Administration's power to modify time limits, on its own motion or at the request of the interested party, allowing more days than originally envisaged if all the procedures required cannot be completed. Its regulation can be found in article 32 of Act 39/2015.

    Possibility of rescision

    The possibility of annulling acts that have involved infringements of the legal system, including the misuse of power. An application must be submitted, otherwise the acts are still valid


    Program or set of programs whose purpose is to solve a problem through the use of computer science.

    Open-source application

    An application which is distributed with a licence that allows it to be used freely, making the source code available, so that it can be modified or improved and copies redistributed to other users.


    Ability and willingness to perform the duties entrusted to one well. Suitability for a job or responsibility.

    Negative assertion

    An assertive technique that involves accepting criticism that is true, not feeling guilty and defending the right to assertiveness we all have.


    Ability to express exactly what one wants, without arousing feelings of fear or hostility towards another person.


    Procedure available to the interested party in a procedure to present reasons or evidence.


    Accreditation by electronic means of the identity of a person or entity, the content of the wishes expressed in their procedures, transactions and documents, and the integrity and authorship of documents.


    The absence of discrepancies between what one feels and what one expresses.


    Information or some detail about the speaker given when the latter communicates.

  • B


    Assertive technique used to deflect criticism. It consists of accepting what one considers justified in the criticism but without engaging in wider argument. 

    Communication barrier

    An obstacle that hinders communication. For example: In the case of personal attention, it could be a counter which is too high.